Ethiopia in General
Ethiopian in General
- Full name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE)
- Constitution: FDRE, 1994
- Regional states: Nine regional states & two city administrative states.
- Flag: Horizontally, from Up to bottom green, yellow & red with a national emblem of yellow lined star on light blue circle background on the center.
- President: w/roSahile Work Zewde (2018)
- Prime Minister: Dr. Abiy Ahimed, Colonel (2018)
- Land area: 432,310 sq mi (1,119,683 sq km); total area: 435,186 sq mi (1,127,127 sq km)
- Population (2014 est.): 96,633,458 (growth rate: 2.89%); birth rate: 37.66/1000; infant mortality rate: 55.77/1000; life expectancy: 60.75
- Capital and largest city (2011 est.):Addis Ababa, 2.979
- Monetary unit: Birr (the code is ETB &the symbol is Br.)
Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa on the continent’s northeast coast. Ethiopia borders six countries in total: Sudan, South Sudan, Kenya, Djibouti, Somalia and Eritrea. Addis Ababa, the capital city, is located in the middle of country and the land contains a wide altitude range, from 100 meters below sea-level on the north-eastern border to more than 4000 meters above sea-level in the country’s mountain ranges. The diversity in altitude around the country results in variable temperature conditions, and a rainy season that spans the majority of the area between June and August. The Abbai (Blue Nile) River, 87% total water tributary connected to the Nile River that flows from Ethiopia and sourced in Lake Tana is located northwest of the capital city, Addis Ababa.
Ethiopia is in east-central Africa, bordered on the west by the Sudan, the east by Somalia and Djibouti, the south by Kenya, and the northeast by Eritrea. It has several high mountains, the highest of which is Ras Dashan at 15,158 ft (4,620 m). The Blue Nile, or Abbai, rises in the northwest and flows in a great semicircle before entering the Sudan. Its chief reservoir, Lake Tana, lies in the northwest.
Archeologists have found the oldest known human ancestors in Ethiopia, including Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba (c. 5.8–5.2 million years old) and Australopithecus anamensis (c. 4.2 million years old). Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa. With the majority of its political history being monarchical, it has existed for over 3,000 years, dating back to the eleventh century B.C.Originally called Abyssinia, Ethiopia is sub-Saharan Africa’s oldest state, and its Solomonic dynasty claims descent from King Menelik I, traditionally believed to have been the son of the queen of Sheba and King Solomon. The current nation is a consolidation of smaller kingdoms that owed feudal allegiance to Haile Selassie I the Ethiopian emperor
Modern Ethiopian people belonging to two supper language family, Afro-Asiatic &Nilo-saharan, & five language families, Kushatic, Sematic, Omotic, Nilotic & Cheri Nilotic resulted to more than 80 languages & delicates. Hamitic peoples migrated to Ethiopia from Asia Minor in prehistoric times. Semitic traders from Arabia penetrated the region in the 7th century B.C. Its Red Sea ports were important to the Roman and Byzantine Empires.
One of the earliest kingdoms to rise to power in the territory was the kingdom of Damat (DM’t) in the 10th century BC, which established its capital at Yeha. In the first century AD the Kingdom of Aksum rose to power in the present Northern Ethiopia,with its capital at Aksum and grew into a major power on the cost of the Red sea, subjugating Yemen and Meroe and converting to Christianity in the early fourth century. The Aksumite Empire fell into decline with the rise of Islam, forcing the Ethiopians to move south into the highlands for refuge. The Aksumites gave way to the Dynasty of Zagwe, who established a new capital atRoha or Lalibela, before giving way to the Reformation of Solomonic dynasty in the 13th century. During the early Solomonic period Ethiopia went through military reforms and imperial expansion that made it dominate the Horn region of Red sea & Gulf of Eden areas. Portuguese missionaries arrived at this time.
In 1529, by conquest of the muslim sultanate state of Adal under Ahmed Gragen (Ahmed the Left handed) allied with the Othoman supporting force devastated the highlands, and was only deterred by a Portuguese intervention. With both Ethiopia and Adal greatly weakened by the war, the Oromo Clanswere able to invade into the highlands, conquering the remains of the Adal Sultanate and pushing deep into Ethiopia. The Portuguese presence also increased, while the Ottomans began to push into BahireNegash or what is now Eriteria , creating a military & commercial base at port Massawa. The Portuguese brought modern weapons and their forms of architecture to Ethiopia, and in 1622 converted emperor SuiseniousI to Catholicism, sparking a civil war which ended in his abdication and an expulsion of all Catholics from Ethiopia. A new capital was established at Gondar in 1632, and a period of peace and prosperity ensued until the country was split apart by warlords in the 18th century during the era of princes or Zemenemesafinit. Ethiopia was reunified in 1855 under Emperor Tewodros II, beginning Ethiopia’s modern history. Ethiopia began to go through a slow modernization process under a leadership ofemperor Yohannies Iv, and defended itself from an Egyptian invasion in 1874. Emperor Yohannes fought and won wars against Egyptians, Italians and Mehadists to keep his people free from foreign invaders. He was killed in action in 1889.
Modern Ethiopia emerged under Emperor Menelik II, who established its independence by routing an Italian invasion in 1896 with the only Vibrant victory of the battle of Adwa. He reunified Ethiopia through peaceful negotiation & forceful subjugation based up on the colonial powers territorial encroachment & his forefathers’ historical background. Disorders that followed Menelik’s death brought his daughter to the throne in 1917, with his cousin, Tafari Makonnen, as regent and heir apparent. When the empress died in 1930, Tafari was crowned as Emperor Haile Selassie I.
Haile Selassie I, from the “Lion of Judah,” outlawed slavery and tried to centralize his scattered realm, in which more than 80 languages were spoken. In 1931, he created a constitution, revised in 1955, that called for a parliament with an appointed senate, an elected chamber of deputies, and a system of courts. But basic power remained with the emperor.
Fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia on Oct. 3, 1935, forcing Haile Selassie into exile in May 1936. Ethiopia was annexed to Eritrea, then an Italian colony, and to Italian Somaliland, forming Italian East Africa. In 1941, The Ethiopian patriots & British troops routed the Italians, and Haile Selassie returned to Addis Ababa. In 1952, Eritrea was incorporated into Ethiopia.
A joint force of British and Ethiopian rebels or patriot managed to drive the Italians out of the country in 1941, and Haile Selassie was returned to the throne. Ethiopia and Eritrea united in a federation, but when Haile Selassie ended the federation in 1961 and made Eritrea a province of Ethiopia.
Haile Selassie was overthrown in 1974 and the militaristic committee called DergRegime came to power. In 1977 Somaliainvaded, trying to annex the Ogaden region, but were pushed back by Ethiopian, Soviet, and Cuban forces. In 1977 and 1978 the government tortured or killed hundreds of thousands of suspected enemies in the Red Terror. In May 1991 17 years civil war ended with the fall of the Derg regium and the Victory of EPRDF. In July 1991, the EPRDF, the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), and others established the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE), which was composed of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution. In June 1992, the OLF withdrew from the government; in March 1993. Eritrea separated from Ethiopia following the fall of the Derg in 1991, after a long independents’ war.
In 1994, a new Federal Democratic Reepublic of Ethiopia (FDRE) was written that formed a bicameral legislature and a judicial system. A general election in 1995 to elect the Parliament also elected EPRDF leader Meles Zenawias prime minister and Dr. NegasoGidadaas president. Ethiopia’s multi party publicwas held in 2000 and Meles was re-elected as prime minister. In October 2001, Lieutenant Girma W/Georgieswas elected president. In the public election of 2005, allegations of irregularities that brought victory to the EPRDF member parties, resulted in widespread protests.
The first and dominant prime minister in FDRE was died on 20 August 2012 and was succeeded by Hailemariam Desalegn. Dr. MulutuTeshom elected as president on 7 October 2013. Ethiopia remains impoverished, but its economy has become one of the world’s fastest growing.
Christianity in Ethiopia : Christianity was introduced by the first Christian generations of the apostles, Philip the apostle teach Ethiopian queen eunuch about prophetic words of the old testament on Jesus Christ and baptized as first Ethiopian Christian official, in his warship pilgrimage to Jerusalem (act.8) during the first half of the 1st century AD (act.8) and Christianity became Ethiopia’s state religion in the 4th century AD. Christianity is widely spread throughout the Aksumite Empire with the arrival of the nine saints from Syria in the 5th& 6th centuries (Aba Aragawi, Aba Penteleon, Aba Gerema, Aba Aftse, Aba Guba, Aba Alef, Aba Lekanos (Lebanos), Aba Yimaeta, and Aba Sehma. The Nine saints established their own monasteries and monastery life with church teachings. The nine saints played a prominent role for the oldest and original apostles based Christianity is practiced in Ethiopia.
Islam in Ethiopia: is the second-most widely practiced religion after Orthodox Christianity. The faith arrived in Ethiopia at an early date, shortly before the hijira. Islam is the religion of the overwhelming majority of theSomali, Afar, Argobba, Harari, Berta, Alaba, and Silt’e and also has many adherents among the Gurage and the Oromo. Muslims arrived in the Axumite Empire during the Hijart as early disciples from Mecca, persecuted by the ruling Quraysh tribe. They were received by the Christian ruler of Axum, whom Arabic tradition has named Ashamaib n Abjar (King Armah in Ge’Ez and Amharic), and he settled them in Negash, where the first Mosque out of the Arabian Peninsula existed what is now called Al Nejashi mosque, Located in the Tigray Region. On the other hand, the principal center of Islamic culture, learning, and propagation has been Hararin Eastern Ethiopia. The Quraysh sent emissaries to bring them back to Arabia, but the King of Axum refused their demands. The Prophet himself instructed his followers who came to the Axumite empire, to respect and protect Axum as well as live in peace with the native Christians.While the city of Medina, north of Mecca, ultimately became the new home of most of the exiles from Mecca, a 7th-century cemetery excavated inside the boundaries of Negash shows the Muslim community survived their departure.